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                                       Zinc oxide in piglet diet and gut microbiota
WELCOME to An- imine’s fifth series of ar- ticles, which will review scientific literature on the effects of the pharma- cological dosage of zinc oxide in weaned piglet diets.
It will also be inspired from the latest outcomes of the zinc suppression re- search network supervised by Animine.
• Quantification of common gut bacteria, in faecal samples or in in- testinal digesta – focus on escherichia coli and lac- tobacillus as common de- nominators.
obtain a source of energy. This stresses the fact that interpretation of the changes in microflora is a complex exercise that cannot be restricted to one flora analysis but that should consider the total balance and resilience of the population as well as the role of this flora and their produced metabolites. What about the effects of
duction in 18 percent of the studies versus increasing in 12 percent of the studies.
tant, but not the only mech- anism to be considered.
medium levels of ZnO seem to have the same ef- fect.
In the European Union, medicated ZnO will be totally banned from June 2022.
The gastrointestinal tract of piglets is colonised by thousands of different bac- terial species that vary de- pending on host genotype and phenotype.
More recent papers sug- gests that the effect of zinc oxide is more connected to the global change in bac- terial diversity rather than in the direct regulation of beneficial or pathogenic floras.
Pharmacological levels of zinc oxide seem to de- crease lactobacillus abun- dance, but this effect was not observed with medium ZnO levels (200-1000ppm).
If you have any que- ries, contact David Ca- dogan on 0409 049 793 or david.cadogan@feed, or Stuart Wilkinson on 0414 487 882 or stuart.wilkinson@
It is interesting to note that abroad there is also a growing number of coun- tries following this trend, such as China, where the supplementation of phar- macological levels of ZnO is already restricted.
Relationship between di- etary zinc oxide and gut microbiota
The current under- standing of this micro- flora is still very limited but some of the bacterial species are commonly ac- cepted to be associated with gut health and weight gain.
pharmacological ZnO?
For decades, zinc oxide is well appreciated for its antibacterial properties, especially at a pharmaco-
It is also important to point out that its positive impact on gut integrity could also play an impor- tant role in the cross-talks between the host and its microflora – though this area still not very well known.
For e coli abundance, both pharmacological and
 The pharmacological dosage of ZnO is well known for its effect on diarrhoea reduction and improved weight gain of weaned piglets.
From a total of 152 pub- lications on pharmacolog- ical use of ZnO in weaned piglets, 26 papers were se- lected for the purpose of this review.
As an example, enteric colibacillosis is clearly due to an excess of escherichia coli and leads to diarrhoea and economic losses.
tant effect on performance, common sense would tell us that ZnO positively af- fects beneficial bacteria (ex: lactobacillus) and de- creases negative ones (ex: pathogenic escherichia coli).
Zinc oxide, a complex mode of action requiring more understanding
However, even after dec- ades of use, there is still no consensus on its modes of action.
Filtering criteria were:
At the contrary, lactoba- cillus are generally consid- ered as beneficial bacteria.
However, the results in literature are not fully con- sistent with this statement.
The mechanism by which high levels of zinc oxide improves performance is a complex one.
This series of articles will review existing scientific literature with a particular focus on its key effects and mechanisms.
• ZnO supplementation at 2000-3000mg Zn/kg of complete diet compared to a negative control (supple- mentation < 200ppm Zn), with or without interme- diary level (200-1000ppm)
Nevertheless, recent findings revealed that ex- cess of lactobacillus can also negatively affect fat digestibility by deconju- gating host’s bile salts to
Indeed, and according to this review, high levels of ZnO tend to decrease lac- tobacillus abundance – re-
Besides gut barrier in- tegrity, zinc requirements, intestinal secretions and appetite regulation, micro- flora modulation is impor-
Figure 1: Effect of ZnO on microflora modulation (sig- nificative effect or tendency). Medium Zn = medium Zn level (200-1000 ppm Zn); High Zn = high Zn level (> 2000 ppm).
This ambitious scientific programme, involving sev- eral renowned universities, addresses the suppression of pharmacological ZnO, while studying the proper supplementation of the potentiated zinc source, HiZox.
This reduction of lacto- bacillus is still associated with better performance.
The effect of ZnO on e coli seems more obvious than its effect on lactoba- cillus and further analysis is required on its final im- pact on piglets’ microbiota resilience.
Nutritional dose of poten- tiated zinc oxide acts as a multifunctional alternative to pharmacological zinc oxide.
 A literature review was performed from AniLib database – Animine in- ternal library.
logical level.
Considering its impor-
n Letter to the Editor
  APL’s view on plant-based protein labelling
AUSTRALIAN Pork The report recom- • The ACCC develops biosecurity, animal wel-
Limited welcomed the report by the Common- wealth Senate Inquiry into meat definitions and other animal products, handed down in Parlia- ment in February 2022.
mends minimum regu- lated standards to prohibit plant protein manufac- turers from referencing traditional animal protein names and imagery of animals on the packaging and in marketing mate- rial.
a national information standard that defines and restricts the use of meat category brands to animal protein products, and that this standard should in- clude guidance on the use of livestock imagery for the labelling and mar- keting of plant-based pro- tein products.
fare and food safety.
“We want these pro- ducers to have a fair playing field, and for con- sumers to be clear on their choice when selecting their proteins,” Ms An-
A fter comprehensively reviewing all the available evidence, the committee – chaired by Queensland Senator Susan McDonald – agreed that the current regulatory framework for the labelling of plant- based protein products was inadequate.
Key among the nine recommendations of the report – which align with recommendations put for- ward by APL and other industry bodies – are that:
drae said.
“Truth in labelling en-
The government’s re- sponse to the inquiry re- port recommendations is now being drafted by the relevant department.
• The Australian Gov- ernment develops a man- datory regulatory frame- work for the labelling of plant-based protein prod- ucts
Australian Pork Limited chief executive officer Margo Andrae said, “APL continues to support all Australian agriculture, but it is important consumers have a labelling system that clearly identifies the raw ingredients, and whether they are home- grown or imported.”
sures Australians aren’t inadvertently misled at the point of purchase. “But it also means all proteins on our shelves meet the same significant compliance standards that the meat and dairy sectors currently adhere to.
The committee con- cluded that Australian families are being de- ceived by misleading labels and descriptions used by plant-based com- panies.
• Food Standards Aus- tralia New Zealand initi- ates a review of section 1.1.1-13 (4) of the FSANZ Code and recommends exempting its application to named meat, seafood and dairy category brands
“The Australian pork industry is worth $5.2 billion and employs over 36,000 people nationwide.
“The bottom line is that Australian consumers should be able to make informed purchasing de- cisions when purchasing the quality food products they love and trust.
“Our producers adhere to some of the strictest standards in the world for
“We look forward to supporting government and industry on the pro- cess moving forward.”
 It is the responsibility of those making submissions to ensure the correct- ness of their claims and statements. The views expressed in this publica- tion are not necessarily those of the publisher.
I HAD to read the article twice, firstly because I had never heard or seen in our Perth supermarkets the brand Impossible Pork and secondly was this real pork?
paper – which sources its revenue from the pork industry and associated businesses – promotes a plant-based ‘pretend pork product’, which obvi- ously intends to compete with the real thing – that is our quality wholesome Australian-grown natural pork produced by our hard- working farmers – is be- yond me.
threatened by a pretend product.
The answer is no.
Surely APL has the ex- pertise and hopefully the will to counter such a pro- vocative attack on our great Australian pork industry.
I was gob smacked and disappointed to see Aus- tralian Pork Newspaper – our industry’s long- standing and well-regarded national newspaper – pro- mote Impossible Pork in the September edition.
Our hard-working pork producers deserve fighting for.
Lea Newing
Impossible Foods even has the cheek on its website to describe its Impossible Pork product as “our newest meat made from plants for people who love the juicy taste of minced pork.”
On page 11 of the Oc- tober edition of APN, we explained why ‘controver- sial’ articles are run.
If it’s made from plants, it is not meat and should never be called meat.
I hope that Australian Pork Limited – which is funded by Australian pork producers – doesn’t just sit on its hands and watch this impossible situation develop to the point where producer livelihoods are
In short, we try to pro- vide a holistic view of what is happening on a broader scale, so as an industry we are aware of all factors that can impact the pork industry and plan accord- ingly.
Why an industry news-
Having spent a lifetime in the pork industry, both as a producer and as an industry executive officer in Western Australia, I have real (pig) skin in the game.
HI Lea, thanks for your letter.
n Here’s my Card n Here’s my Card n Here’s my Card
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Australian Pork Newspaper, November 2022 – Page 23 AlltechLienert
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